In recent years, in Dagestan, there has been a dynamic increase in the area under rice and an increase in its production. The possibilities of further increasing the economic efficiency of rice growing in our republic were discussed on March 13 in Kizlyar, as part of a seminar-meeting organized by the Federal Agrarian Scientific Center of the Republic of Dagestan together with the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Dagestan.
The discussion was attended by the First Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Dagestan Sharip Sharipov, Director of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Management” Dagmeliovodkhoz “Zalkip Kurbanov, acting. Nariman Nimatulaev, director of the Federal Agrarian Research Center of the Republic of Dagestan, other employees of the FARC RD, Timur Gairbekov, deputy head of the Kizlyar district, heads of district agricultural departments and heads of rice farms in Dagestan. The event was also attended by guests from the Krasnodar Territory – leading scientists of the Federal Research Center for Rice, headed by the head of the institute, academician Sergei Garkusha.
Opening the event, Sharip Sharipov, First Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Dagestan, outlined the systemic measures of state support adopted by the authorities of the republic, which helped to significantly increase the flow of private investment in the construction and reconstruction of engineering rice systems in a relatively short period of time. Assistance measures are aimed at the development of melioration, both on-farm and inter-farm, support for seed production, subsidizing the costs of a complex of agrotechnological works, increasing soil fertility and many other issues. Dagestan today has become one of the regions of the country, which makes a significant role in the production of rice. At the end of 2022, about 130 thousand tons of white grain were harvested in Dagestan from an area of about 30 thousand hectares. Also, in recent years, 4 large plants for the production of rice groats have been commissioned in the republic. In his opinion, the main way for the further development of rice growing in the republic is its transfer to a technological basis. And here, relying on science, innovative achievements and best practices is indispensable.
Over the past few years, scientific developments in the field of rice cultivation have resumed in Dagestan. This was announced by the head of the Federal Agrarian Research Center of the Republic of Dagestan Nariman Nimatulaev. Scientific work is aimed at meeting the needs of production. Two dozen popular varieties of Kuban breeding are undergoing environmental tests, and Dagestan scientists have also started working with varieties of Don and Volgograd breeding. Another direction of scientific research of the FARC RD is focused on identifying the optimal nutrition regimes for certain varieties of rice. Another direction concerns selection. In particular, the work on the restoration of the rice variety of Dagestan selection, which was lost at one time, is being successfully carried out. They also pay attention to the issues of protecting plants from the most common pests and diseases. Further, he noted that on many issues of scientific activity, the scientists of the FARC RD keep in touch with the specialists of the FSRC of rice.
Sergey Garkusha, director of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution “Federal Research Center for Rice”, is aware of the positive changes taking place in various areas of the agricultural industry of Dagestan, including in the rice growing industry. In his opinion, in the sustainable cultivation of any crop, there is a share of both the weather and the applied technologies. He assured that the scientists of the Rice Institute are committed to providing intellectual and practical assistance to Dagestan rice growers. The Rice Research Center is the leading Russian scientific institution providing scientific and methodological support in the development of the country’s rice growing. Today, the center has more than 15,000 hectares of land, where high reproduction seeds are produced using modern technologies.
Further, various aspects of rice cultivation were described in detail in their speeches by employees of the Rice Institute Maxim Ladatko, Valery Ladatko, Lyubov Esaulova and Dmitry Pishchenko. They considered the successful development of rice growing in the context of the development of effective technologies related to irrigation regimes, mineral nutrition systems and plant protection, as well as the introduction of promising rice varieties into practice.
First of all, it is necessary to improve the formation of the optimal varietal structure of rice. The choice of rice varieties should be based on specific scientific recommendations, since the responsiveness of varieties depends on specific soil-ecological, agrochemical, weather factors. Only by ensuring the selection of zoned and more modern varieties can significantly increase the efficiency of rice cultivation.
Another no less significant point is the issues of mineral nutrition of plants. Rice growers need to monitor the content of nutrients, both in the soil through soil diagnostics, and in the plant itself through leaf diagnostics. The correct formation of a diet can guarantee an additional 5-7 centners of rice per hectare.
Protecting rice from weeds, pests and diseases is also of decisive importance in rice growing technology. The formation of protection should not be a one-time focal technique, but a systemic event that can guarantee effectiveness.
A lively discussion at the event was caused by the issue of irrigation regime, ensuring the rational use of irrigation water. Rice is a water-consuming crop. Dagestan rice growers have a much harder time, because the muddy water of the Terek forces every year to plan checks, while in other rice-growing regions, planning is carried out every 5-6 years. Therefore, Dagestan rice growers are forced to spend money on the purchase of planners; today almost every farm has them. The importance of timely flooding of checks after sowing and regulation during the season was also a red thread. Here it should be noted that it is very difficult without well-coordinated interaction with Dagmeliovodkhoz, since the increased water consumption due to the increase in areas under rice requires compliance with the order of supply, economical use of water sources in areas of tense water supply.
Summing up the results of the discussion, Sharip Sharipov noted that the event was very timely. Of particular relevance is the fact that it takes place on the eve of spring field work. It is important that such events become a systemic phenomenon.
“Rice growing today is one of the priorities of the regional agrarian policy. This is evidenced by the achievements of recent years, our republic is recognized as an important player in the field of rice growing in the country. Today the Federal Research Center of Rice met with our production workers in a representative composition. We made sure that our rice growers appreciate the scientific word, new agricultural knowledge, and have a desire to improve the practiced agricultural practices. A system of interaction with Krasnodar scientists will be established so that rice growers will be able to promptly receive reasonable advice on emerging issues. Dagestan retains its potential in the field of rice growing, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the Republic of Dagestan intends to continue to take measures to better use the competitive capabilities of Dagestan, both in terms of heat supply, other natural conditions, and the experience accumulated over many years by our rice growers,” said the First Deputy Minister.
Full version on the website A seminar-meeting on rice cultivation technologies was held in Dagestan